Regions and Countries






Australasia (Australia / New Zealand), Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

Americas vs Latin America

Exclude Canada, USA, Belize, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, the Bahamas, the Falklands.

Middle East vs West Asia

Middle East = West Asia - Caucasus  + all Egypt

Caucasus = Armenia / Azerbaijan / Georgia

Note: West Asia only includes Sinai Peninsula part of Egypt, while Middle East includes the whole Egypt.


Country Continent Language
Guinea Africa French
Guinea-Bissau Africa Portugese
Equatorial Guinea Africa Spanish
Papua New Guinea Oceania English
  • Guinea:Formerly known as French Guinea

Guinea pig:A common pet in South America.

Possible origins of the name:

  • Guinea pigs likely were brought to Europe by Spanish explorers in the 1500s. Around this time, the word guinea was sometimes used to describe things that were far across the sea
  • perhaps ports in either Guiana in South America or Guinea in Africa might have inspired the guinea portion of the name. Guinea pigs likely traveled to Europe on ships stopping at such ports.

Doubly Landlocked

  • Liechtenstein
  • Uzbekistan

North America Deserts

North America has four major deserts: Great Basin, Mohave, Chihuahuan and Sonoran.

  • The Great Basin Desert: both the highest-elevation and northernmost of the four and has very cold winters.
  • Though the Chihuahuan Desert is the southernmost, it lies at a fairly high elevation and is not protected by any barrier from arctic air masses, so hard winter freezes are common.


Iran is the only official Shia nation of the world.

波斯波利斯 Persepolis 设拉子东北 51 公里“善心山”(Mountain of Mercy)之下,曾经是波斯帝国的首都,大约在前 560 年由居鲁士二世所建造 前 331 年被征服者亚历山大大帝焚城

Sasanian Empire: the last Iranian empire before the early Muslim conquests The Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire.

Iran: Achaemenid Empire=>Alexander the great => Seleucid Empire => Parthian Empire => Sasanian Empire => Arab


Holy cities for Shia muslims: Karbala/Najaf (about 75km apart; both south of Baghdad)

Central America

7 Countries:

  • Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama



  • Burj Khalifa
  • The Palm Jumeirah
  • Dubai Marina
  • Dubai Old Town - Al Bastakiya
  • Dubai Museum
  • Dubai Spice Souk


Divided into two parts, Tahiti Nui (bigger, northwestern part) and Tahiti Iti (smaller, southeastern part).

Flights between Tahiti and Paris:

  • Air France / Air Tahiti Nui via LAX
  • French Bee via SFO