EPA Tier 4 (since 2015):

  • MPXpress MP54AC:
    • The only MPXpress that meets EPA's Tier 4 emissions standard 5,400 hp (1 kW = 1.34 hp)
    • MP36PH-3C, 3,600 hp, the most popular MPXpress variant, used by Caltrain Baby Bullet train.
  • EMD F125 Spirit, 4,700 hp
  • Siemens Charger: (future standard in North America?)
    • SC-44: (S=Siemens, C=Charger, 44=4,400HP) the basic version. Use by ACE, Coaster, Amtrak Midwest, Amtrak Cascades, MARC (Maryland), Capitol Corridor and San Joaquins, Pacific Surfliner.
    • SCB-40: (S=Siemens, C=Charger, B=Brightline, 40=4,000HP), used by Brightline.
    • ALC-42: (A=Amtrak, L=Long-distance, C=Charger, 42=4,200HP). Larger fuel tanks. For long distance routes.
    • SCV-42: (S=Siemens, C=Charger, V=Via), used by Via Rail.
    • Dual Mode Charger: both diesel and electric.

Diesel–electric locomotive:

  • the diesel engine drives either an electrical DC generator (generally, less than 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) net for traction), or an electrical AC alternator-rectifier (generally 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) net or more for traction), the output of which provides power to the traction motors that drive the locomotive. There is no mechanical connection between the diesel engine and the wheels.


  • HO scale (1:87) is the most popular. Standard gauage 16.5 mm
  • Lego Train: Standard gauage 37.5mm

Transit Systems

North America Rapid Transit:

Metro systems:

US National Rail Network

Refers to the entire network of interconnected standard gauge rail lines in North America.

  • West: Union Pacific, BNSF
  • East: CSX, Norfold Southern
  • Canada: Canadian Pacific, Canadian National
  • North-South: Kansas City Southern
  • Passenger: Amtrak

Union Pacific is the second largest railroad in the United States after BNSF, with which it shares a duopoly on transcontinental freight rail lines in the Western, Midwestern and Southern United States.


  • Santa Fe => merged to BNSF. You may see "Santa Fe" on many locomotives in museums, they are now part of BNSF, where SF stands for Santa Fe.
  • Southern Pacific => Union Pacific


the possible root of "caboose" to the obsolete Low German word Kabhuse, a small cabin erected on a sailing ship's main deck.[citation needed] This was absorbed into Middle Dutch and entered the Dutch language circa 1747 as kabhuis, the compartment on a ship's main deck in which meals were prepared. In modern Dutch, kombuis is equivalent to galley.

Rolling Stock Manufacturers


  • CRRC, China. World's largest manufacturer of rolling stock in terms of revenue.
  • Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan
  • Hitachi Rail, Japan.
  • Hyundai Rotem, South Korea.
  • Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Japan


  • Alstom, France. Purchase the transportation division of Bombardier in 2021.
    • TGV. Avelia (Avelia Liberty for Acela).
  • Siemens Mobility, headquarters in Munich, Germany.
  • Stadler Rail AG, Switzerland.
  • Talgo, Spain.



China Train Categories

  • G: 250+ km/h
  • D: 200-250 km/h
  • Z: 160 km/h 25T
  • T: 140 km/h 25K
  • K: 120 km/h 25G


目前青藏铁路拉萨至格尔木段采用内燃机进行牵引,铁路可承受的牵引力为 2000 吨,由于牵引力有限,到达格尔木的火车需重新排组成两列列车才能到达拉萨。今后进行电气化改造后牵引力将达到 4000 吨,该段铁路牵引力将与西宁至格尔木段一样,当货运火车经过格尔木时,就无需进行重组便可直接抵达拉萨。电气化改造不仅改变了青藏铁路的货运能力,也将进一步提升客运火车的速度。

Tilting train

The idea of a tilting train became popular in the 1960s and 1970s when various rail operators, impressed by the high-speed rail services being introduced in France and Japan, wondered how they could similarly speed up travel without building a dedicated parallel rail network (as those two countries were doing). By tilting, the train could go around curves designed for slower trains at higher speeds without causing undue discomfort to passengers. s