Power Capacity

  • China power capacity: 2200 GW (2020)
  • US: 1120 GW (2020)
  • UK: 85 GW (2014) all renewable by 2025
  • Norway: 37 GW (2020)

China produced more electricity than the next three countries—U.S., India, and Russia—combined.

2018 world new renewable energy capacity: 171 GW, total 2,351 GW, solar/wind accounts for 84% of the growth.

World's largest

  • Hydro: Three Gorges Dam, 22.5G
  • Coal: Tuoketuo Power Station, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China 6,720 MW
  • Wind:
    • wind farm: Gansu Wind Farm (a.k.a Jiuquan Wind Power Base), installed 8 GW, with a planned installed capacity of 20 GW.
    • Most Powerful Wind Turbine: 108-metre blade, 15 MW
  • World's largest coal mine: Tavan tolgoi, Mongolia.
  • World's largest Solar Park: Bhadla Solar Park, India.


The solar power source is via photovoltaic modules that convert light directly to electricity.

Concentrated solar power, the other large-scale solar generation technology, which uses heat to drive a variety of conventional generator systems. Electricity is generated when the concentrated light is converted to heat (solar thermal energy), which drives a heat engine (usually a steam turbine) connected to an electrical power generator or powers a thermochemical reaction. Spain accounted for almost half of the world's capacity.

House hold usage

1 home about 10-20 kWh per day (no AC no heating), ~400 kWh per month

1 MW can support 400-900 homes.

Ah vs kWh vs Mj

Ah is usually used to describe capacity of batteries. However kWh is more often used to measure the capacity of the battery in electric cars.

Power in Watts = Current in Amps x Voltage

  • W = A * V
  • kWh = 1000 * Ah * V
  • 3.6 Gj = 1 MWh
  • 3.6 Mj = 1 kWh
  • 1 Mj = 0.277778 kWh

Lithium Battery Energy Density

  • Jet A1 fuel 43 MJ/kg
  • Gasoline: 46 Mj/kg, or 12778 Wh/kg
  • lithium-ion 285Wh/kg, or 1MJ/kg ("Made in China 2025" goal: 2020, 300 Wh/kg; 2025, 400 Wh/kg, 2030, 500 Wh/kg)
  • lithium-sulphur battery: 500 Wh/kg, used by Airbus on the Zephyr solar UAV
  • hydrogen: 142 MJ/kg


Boiling Water Reactor (沸水反应堆)

Pressurized Water Reactor (压水反应堆)

华龙一号(代号 HPR1000)是中国自主知识产权的第三代压水堆核电站技术, 1100 MW

As of June 2021, China has a total nuclear power generation capacity of 49.6 GW from 50 reactors, with additional 17.1 GW under construction

1 unit ~=1 GW


Measured by kw/sq^2

Google Bay View and Charleston East: 7MW, 90,000 individual solar panels, ~40% of the electricity used in the buildings, Dragon scale tiles

Fossil Fuel


Global power generation from coal is expected to jump by 9% in 2021 to an all-time high of 10,350 terawatt-hours

Oil Benchmarks: Brent vs WTI vs OPEC

  • Brent: a combination of crude oil from 15 different oil fields in the North Sea; the major benchmark for other crude oils in Europe or Africa
  • WTI: West Texas Intermediate, US, also known as Light Sweet Crude, the majority of which is located in the Permian oil Field
  • OPEC: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; an average of the prices of oil from Algeria, Indonesia, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Venezuela, and Mexico. more “sour”, and therefore less useful for making gasoline.


  • previously: WTI > Brent
  • after fracking: WTI < Brent

Some Crude oils are easier, less costly to refine into gasoline than others. Low sulfur crude is also known as Sweet crude. The commonly used measure of sulfur content is API (American Petroleum Institute.) gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water.

  • API gravity > 10:lighter and floats on water;
  • API gravity < 10, heavier and sinks.

API gravity comparison:

  • WTI Crude: around 39.6
  • Brent Crude: around 38.06, less "light" and "sweet" than WTI
  • OPEC: heavier, around 32.7

WTI price up (spread or difference between the price of WTI and Brent is narrowing):

  • New U.S. crude oil transportation infrastructure came online. including pipelines and crude-by-rail terminals
  • U.S. refineries are running at high levels.
  • U.S. refineries gain access to domestic light sweet crudes.

WTI: Nymex Brent: ICE

Oil Fields

  • Permian Basin
  • Eagle Ford
  • Bakken

Oil and Gas Industry

  • Upstream: identify, extract, or produce raw materials
  • Midstream: links upstream and downstream (e.g. transportation, storage, etc)
  • Downstream: post-production of crude oil and natural gas


  • Moss Landing project, which has a capacity of 730 MWh and is planned for an expansion to over 1GWh.
  • Kapolei Energy Storage facility (KES): by Tesla, 565 MWh of Megapacks
  • A single Megapack unit is a container-sized “3 MWh battery system” with integrated modules, inverters, and thermal systems.

In Games

Cities Skylines

  • Wind Turbine: 0 - 8 MW
  • Advanced Wind Turbine: 0 - 20 MW
  • Coal: 40 MW
  • Oil: 120 MW
  • Hydro: 0 - 1600 MW
  • Solar: 112 - 160 MW
  • Nuclear: 640 MW
  • Geothermal: 80 MW
  • Solar Updraft: 240 MW
  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant: 480 MW
  • Wave: 0 - 20 MW


  • Steam Engine: 900 kW
  • Solar: 60 kW
  • Accumulator = 5 MJ

Satellite Images

Tesla is powering the whole Tau island(-14.2193329,-169.4973801) Map: