Electric Vehicles

Current ID.4 production capacity in Chattanooga is expected to be from 100,000 to 120,000 units per year.

New cars every year:

  • China ~28 million,
  • US ~17 million
  • EU ~17 million

Battery Factory Capacity

  • CATL: 7 terawatt hours of production capacity by 2030
  • Tesla announced an ambitious plan to boost battery production capacity 3TWh by 2030. Tesla’s total current production capacity is just 50GWh(2021)
  • Nevada gigafactory can produce 20GWh a year but is operating at just 30 per cent of its eventual capacity. (2021)


AC vs DC

The power that comes from the grid is always AC. However, batteries can only store power as DC. The difference between AC charging and DC charging is where the AC power gets converted; inside or outside the car. DC chargers are faster to charge. DC also enables bidirectional charging.

  • Thomas Edison: DC, cannot be easily converted to other voltages
  • Nikola Tesla: AC, relatively easy to convert to other voltages


  • Level 1: 120v 12 A = 1.44 kW, adding roughly 4 miles of range per hour
  • Level 2: 240v 7.2 kW between 12 and 60 miles per hour (16 A = 3.3 kW, 32 A = 7.7 kW)
  • Level 3: DC Fast Charging, 50-350 kW


  • J1772: the industry standard for Level 1 or Level 2 charging.
  • Combined Charging System (CCS), allow for AC/DC charging on the same port.
  • CHAdeMO will be phased out in the US and Europe, replaced by CCS
  • Tesla: uses its own connectors, also has CHAdeMO and CCS adapters.


  • AC: standardized at Type 2 standard (outside of 110V AC countries like the US and Japan)
  • DC plug: CCS (Combined Charging System); Nissan adopted CCS with Ariya, moving away from Japan standard CHAdeMO.
  • China:
    • GB/T 20234.2: AC charging
    • GB/T 20234.3: rapid DC charging (only one nationwide DC charging system)

ISO 15118 is a Vehicle to Grid (V2G) communication interface that allows for bi-directional charging/discharging of electric vehicles.

Charging Networks

Electrify America:

North America standard: NEMA

  • NEMA 14-30, 30A, clothes dryer
  • NEMA 14-50, 50A, EV


Tesla early models were named after battery size (e.g. Model S 60 = 60kWh). You can see significant improvements comparing 2016 and 2020 models:

  • 2020 Model Y 75kWh, 316 mi, $50k
  • 2016 Model S 60, 210 mi, $66k; 60D $71k

Nissan Ariya

  • 2022: 63kWh or 87 kWh, from $40k

Nissan Leaf

  • 2020: 150 to 226 mi; from $31,600; 40 to 62 kWh
  • 2016: 107 miles; 30 kWh
  • 2015: 84 miles; 24 kWh


  • 2016: 53 miles, full 420 miles, $33,995
  • 2015: 38 miles, full 380 miles


Battery Cost

According to the latest forecast from research company BloombergNEF (BNEF), “Battery prices, which were above $1,100 per kilowatt-hour in 2010, have fallen 87% in real terms to $156/kWh in 2019. By 2023, average prices will be close to $100/kWh.” BNEF cites a longer term forecast of batteries costing $61/kWh by 2030.

Iron phosphate (LFP) batteries

Iron phosphate (LFP) batteries are traditionally cheaper and safer, but they offer less energy density, which means less efficient and shorter range for electric vehicles. It now makes sense to use the cobalt-free batteries in lower-end and shorter-range vehicles.


The California Air Resources Board requires public transit agencies to transition to 100% zero-emission fleets by 2040. VTA is working to achieve this important goal by 2036.


The largest tire manufactures:

  • Bridgestone (Japan)
    • Firestone (U.S.) is a subsidiary of Bridgestone
  • Michelin (France)
  • Goodyear (U.S.)
    • production lines:
      • Eagle performance,
      • Assurance: passenger,
      • Wrangler: light truck
      • Ultra Grip: winter
  • Continental (Germany)
  • Sumitomo (Japan)
  • Hankook (South Korea)
  • Pirelli (Italy)
  • Yokohama (Japan)

Tire Code: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tire_code