What's special about 8069?

Runway length is shown to the nearest 100’, using 70 as the rounding point; a runway 8070’ in length is charted as 81, while a runway 8069’ in length is charted as 80.

What's "Heavy"?

Heavy: 300,000 pounds or more maximum certified takeoff weight.

Super: Airbus A380-800 (A388) and the ANTONOV An-225 (A225).

what part of the aircraft generates lift?

The whole aircraft. any objects moving through fluid generates lift .

Which tire should land first

the upwind main gear

Airplane direction during pre-takeoff check?

engines are air-cooled, pre-takeoff check turn the airplane in the direction of the wind

why have 2 ignition systems

for increased power

why need a pitot tube drain hole

let moisture out

How to roughly estimate fuel consumption

HP / 20, e.g. Citabria, 118 HP, ~6 GPH; if carbureted (instead of fuel injected), add ~0.5 GPH.

What is "Flight Level"?

Level 50 = 5000 feet

The transition between altitudes and flight levels differs by country and is generally just above the highest obstacle in that country.

  • US: the transition altitude/level is 18,000' / FL180.
  • Some countries transition as low as 5000' / FL050 and the transition altitude/level may vary from airport to airport.

What is dead-reckoning navigation?

Dead Reckoning (DR) is a method of navigation relying on estimating one's current track, groundspeed and position based on earlier known positions.

What is the intake manifold?

The intake manifold is the part of an engine that supplies fresh air to the cylinders: it is a small tube that distributes the fuel/air mixture into the engine’s cylinders during the intake stroke.

Feathering the blades

Feathering the blades of a propeller means to increase their angle of pitch by turning the blades to be parallel to the airflow. This minimizes drag from a stopped propeller following an engine failure in flight.

What is adverse yaw?

Adverse yaw is the natural and undesirable tendency for an aircraft to yaw in the opposite direction of a roll.

What is yaw damper?

A yaw damper is a system used to reduce (or damp) the undesirable tendencies of an aircraft to oscillate in a repetitive rolling and yawing motion, a phenomenon known as the Dutch roll.

What is Differential braking?

Differential braking is when you press one brake pedal harder than the other. It is used as an additional form of directional control when: You have no other forms of steering (either because the steering has failed or there is no nose-wheel steering).


flight management system

FBO: Fixed-base operator

  • operate at the airport.
  • provide aeronautical services: fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance, flight instruction, etc.

Airport Frequencies

An airport with a tower usually have tower and ground freq, some large airports also have ramp freq to handle taxiway to gate communication.

The individual airline-tenants control their own ramps, otherwise the airport ATC is responsible for ramp traffic.

ATIS / D-ATIS: weather and other info.

CTAF: when there's no tower; often the same as the tower freq.

UNICOM (universal communications): air-ground, operated by a non-air traffic control private agency to provide advisory service.


Wx is the abbreviation for weather in the US.

What is Absolute altitude?

Absolute altitude is the vertical distance of an aircraft above the terrain.


Two-way data-link system: by which controllers can transmit non urgent strategic messages to an aircraft as an alternative to voice communications.

Circuit Breakers

The numbers on your breaker are there to tell you much power they let through the circuit before it trips. Electricians measure that power in amps. So, a breaker labeled with a 15 will let 15 amps through but will shut the circuit off if it senses 16 amps.


Fuel-injected engines do not require a primer.

When cold, a carbureted aircraft engine may not generate sufficient heat to vaporize the fuel in its cylinders, resulting in an engine that won’t start. A manual fuel primer injects vaporized fuel directly into one or more of the engine’s cylinders to aid in starting.


ad=airworthiness directive (like car recalls?)


create a spark, does not need a source of energy


navigate by visual references on the ground


FANS: Future Air Navigation System. It provides direct data link communication between the pilot and the air traffic controller. and allows controllers to play a more passive monitoring role through the use of increased automation and satellite-based navigation.

Runway numbers

All runways are numbered based on the magnetic azimuth (compass bearing) in which a runway is oriented.

Load Factor

load factor during a constant altitude turn is determined by bank; not changed by airspeed or type of airplane


the Carburetor is a device responsible for the maintenance of the proper air to fuel ratio for combustion.

The Carburetor works on Bernoulli’s principle, in that the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, and the higher the dynamic pressure is.

when to use Carburetor

  • When icing conditions are present.
  • High relative humidity.
  • Prolonged descent, or when approaching to land at low RPM.
  • When significantly reducing power (for example a simulated forced landing)

What is AOE?

An airport of entry (AOE) is an airport that provides customs and immigration services for incoming flights.

What are the documents that must be carried aboard an airplane.


  • Airworthiness certificate: A current airworthiness certificate is required (by FAR 91.203) to be displayed in an airplane where it can be read by everyone aboard.
  • Registration certificate
  • Operating limitations
  • Weight and balance information.

What is ELT? Which frequency?

ELTs of various types were developed as a means of locating downed aircraft. These electronic, battery operated transmitters operate on one of three frequencies. These operating frequencies are 121.5 MHz, 243.0 MHz, and the newer 406 MHz. ELTs operating on 121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz are analog devices.

What is useful load?

Useful load—the weight of the pilot, copilot, passengers, baggage, usable fuel, and drainable oil. It is the basic empty weight subtracted from the maximum allowable gross weight.

What is ARINC 429?

ARINC 429 is a data transfer standard for aircraft avionics.

How to calculate x-wind component?

wind angle x-wind
10 1/5
20 1/3
30 1/2
40 2/3
60 1

What is the definition of "night"?

"night": "the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the Air Almanac, converted to local time."

"civil twilight": begin in the morning, and to end in the evening when the center of the Sun is geometrically 6 degrees below the horizon.

"Sunrise and sunset": the times when the upper edge of the disk of the Sun is on the horizon, considered unobstructed relative to the location of interest. Atmospheric conditions are assumed to be average, and the location is in a level region on the Earth’s surface.

"Night takeoff and landing experience": the pilot must have made at least 3 takeoffs and 3 landings to a full stop during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise within the preceding 90 days.


  • FAA: Federal Aviation Administration, within Department of Transportation.
  • FCC: Federal Communications Commission. An independent agency of the United States government that regulates communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable across the United States.
  • NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, within Department of Commerce.
    • National Weather Service (NWS): one of six branches of NOAA
      • The Aviation Weather Center (AWC), located in Kansas City, Missouri, is a central aviation support facility operated by the National Weather Service. https://aviationweather.gov/
        • AIRMET
        • SIGMET
  • NTSB: National Transportation Safety Board, an independent U.S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation.

How to calculate moment and CG?

Weight x Arm = Moment

CG = Total Moment / Total Weight


  • As the heading passes through east or west, the compass will momentarily have the correct heading while turning.
  • When starting a turn from a northerly heading, the compass lags behind the turn.
  • When starting a turn from a southerly heading, the compass leads the turn or exaggerates the rate of turn.

Is it legal to use an EFB?

Yes, AC-120-76D

Can you take off with frost on the airplane?

Airliners: An aircraft can depart only when it's 'clean' – no snow, frost, or ice on any part of the aircraft.

What documents and endorsements are required in order for you to fly solo? Which documents are required to be present in the airplane with you?

Logbook; signed endorsement (incl. tailwheel endorsement), third class medical certificate, student pilot certificate, and one government issued photo ID;

How long is your logbook endorsement good for and how do you renew it?

initial: 90 days; renew: every 90 days.

What aircraft certificates and documents must be on board? Which must be in view of passengers?

ARROW: Airworthiness, Registration, Radio Station License, Operating Limitations, and Weight and Balance

The airworthiness certificate must be visible to crew and passengers.

The Federal Aviation Regulations state: “No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in airworthy condition.” Who makes the“airworthy” or “not airworthy” decision prior to a solo flight? (FAR 91.7)

The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft is in condition for safe flight.

What preflight actions are required concerning the airport environment and aircraft performance?

weather reports and forecasts, fuel requirements, alternatives available if the planned flight cannot be completed, and any known traffic delays of which the pilot in command has been advised by ATC; runway lengths at airports of intended use; the takeoff and landing distance data

What's the regulation on Alcohol

Under § 91.17, you may not act as a crewmember of a civil aircraft within 8 hours after the consumption of any alcoholic beverage, while under the influence of alcohol, while using any drug that affects your faculties in any way contrary to safety, or while having an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater in a blood or breath specimen.

(Comparing to driving: it is illegal for you to drive if you have a BAC of: 0.08% or higher if you are over 21 years old. 0.01% or higher if you are under 21 years old.)

What is the minimum fuel reserve for day VFR flight? Is this legal minimum also an appropriate minimum for you to use in your preflight planning?

30 minutes (day), or 45 minutes (night)

Except when necessary for takeoff and landing, what are the minimum safe altitudes when flying over congested areas, other than congested areas, sparsely populated areas and, most importantly, anywhere?

Over any congested area of a city, town, or settlement, or over any open-air assembly of persons, an altitude of 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of 2,000 feet of the aircraft.

Over other than congested areas – An altitude of 500 feet above the surface except over open water or sparsely populated areas. In that case, the aircraft may not be operated closer than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure.

What action do you need to take if you are overtaking another aircraft and which aircraft has the right-of-way? What should you do if you are flying a head-on collision course with another aircraft? If another single engine aircraft is converging from the right, who has the right-of-way?

aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way

head-on collision: each aircraft shall alter course to the right.

the other aircraft has the right-of-way ("the aircraft to the other's right has the right-of-way")

When is a go-around appropriate? Explain what is meant by the term “stabilized approach”. Give examples.

Go‐arounds are typically initiated if a pilot or controller is not completely satisfied that the requirements for a safe landing are in place.

A stabilized approach is one in which the pilot establishes and maintains a constant angle glidepath towards a predetermined point on the landing runway.

What affects stall speed?

  • weight: higher weight -> higher stall speed. V_stallheavy = V_stalllight * sqart(heavyweight / lightweight)
  • bank angle: increase bank angle -> increase load factor -> higher stall speed
  • flaps: extend flap->increase lift->lower stall speed
  • Center of Gravity: forward CG->higher stall speed
  • Power: higher power -> lower stall speed
  • altitude: higher altitude->lower density->true airspeed increase->indicated stall speed remain the same, but true airspeed will be higher

What's the speed limit?

91.117 aircraft speed

  • 250:
    • below 10,000 MSL;
    • if on basicmed, <= 250 kts, <=18,000 ft MSL.
  • 200: 2,500 AGL, within 4 nm of the primary airport of Class C or D; under class B; through a VFR corridor

Right of way

91.113 right of way

  • An aircraft in distress has the right-of-way over all other air traffic.
  • same category: the aircraft to the other's right has the right-of-way
  • diff category: balloon > glider > airship > powered parachute > airplane/rotocraft
  • an aircraft towing or refueling other aircraft has the right-of-way over all other engine-driven aircraft.
  • overtaking: Each aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way
  • both landing: the aircraft at the lower altitude has the right-of-way

what affects Maneuvering Speed?

increase weight->increase AOA->increase Va

Assuming you are at or below your Va your aircraft will stall as you reach its' maximum structural load (g-limit). As your plane stalls, it unloads the g's, eliminating the risk of bending metal.

Below Va, you'll stall before you break, but only if you: Move a single flight control, in one direction only, in smooth air.