Animals - Mammals

Three main groups of living mammals:

  • monotremes 单孔目 lay eggs, female monotremes nurse their young with milk (only 5 species) the only egg-laying mammals. short-nosed echidna, platypus
  • Marsupial 有袋类
  • Placentalia 胎盘动物

Fun facts

  • Hair is unique to mammals. To maintain a constant body temperature
  • bats are the only mammals that can fly
  • red kangaroo: the largest kangaroo; can reach speeds of >30mph
  • koala has 2 thumbs
  • koala male very territorial; male on separate trees
  • monkey vs ape: apes has no tails, monkeys have tails.
  • hyrax related to elephant
  • okapi related to giraffe



(Lemurs, monkeys, apes)

  • Strepsirrhini 原猴
    • Lemurs
    • Lorises
    • Aye-aye (指猴): a long-fingered lemur, the world's largest nocturnal primate.
  • Haplorhini 简鼻亚目
    • catarrhines 狭鼻小目
      • Old World monkeys
        • macaque 猕猴 Japanese macaque = snow monkeys
        • mandrill 山魈: the largest monkeys in the world, scarlet nose and blue ridges on the face
      • Apes, including humans
        • Gibon
        • Siamang
    • platyrrhines (New World monkeys). Platyrrhini is derived from the Greek for "broad nosed", their noses are flatter than those of other simians
      • marmoset: 狨猴
    • tarsier: 眼镜猴. Philippine tarsier have the largest eyes relative to their body size.


Lion: Social; the most intelligent big cats; 母狮子狩猎,公狮子保护。


Only 8 types of bears:

  • American black bear: usually black, but in some regions the “black” bear can be brown, cinnamon-colored, or even blonde.
  • Asian black bear: Asian black bear has a prominent white patch, which is often V-shaped, on its chest.
  • Brown bear
  • Polar bear
  • Giant panda
  • Sun bear: the world’s smallest bear.
  • Sloth bear: Indian Subcontinent, insectivore (insect-eater), has the longest tail of all bears.
  • Spectacled Bear: The Andes, South America, the only living bear species found in South America. named for the spectacle-like appearance of its facial markings

marine mammals (Cetaceans)

whales, dolphins, porpoises

  • sperm whale 抹香鲸: the largest living toothed animal on the planet
  • Orca=killer whale, are in fact huge dolphins




  • 须鲸亚目(Mysticeti):没有牙齿,有鲸须来筛选浮游生物,滤食性;两个鼻孔,体型较大。
  • 齿鲸亚目(Odontoceti):有牙齿,头骨左右不对称,只有一个鼻孔,掠食性。大体可分为海豚、喙鲸和抹香鲸三个差异较大的类群。

海豚:脊索动物门 > 脊椎动物亚门 > 哺乳纲 > 鲸目 > 齿鲸亚目 > 海豚科 > 海豚


Hoofed mammals

  • odd-toed: (single toe)horses, rihnos (3 toes)
  • even-toed: pigs (4 toes), deer, antelopes


All antelope species have horns. Some on both male and female, some are male ony.

Antelope vs deer: Antelope horns are attached, unlike a deer's antlers that shed each year.

  • Impala 黑斑羚 are antelopes (羚羊)
  • Klipspringer: a small antelope found in eastern and southern Africa.
  • Blesbok: prominent white blaze on the face.
  • Gazelles
  • Blackbuck
  • Springbok
  • Waterbuck
  • Sable and roan antelope
  • Bontebok:white markings on the long, narrow face (known as a threat mask) are intended to intimidate predators
  • Wildebeest 角马
    • White-beared gnu: a.k.a. white-bearded wildebeest, native to Kenya and Tanzania.
  • Addax: a.k.a. white antelope and the screwhorn antelope. Sahara Desert.
  • Arabian Oryx: long, straight and slender horns. Light color to reflect the desert heat and sunlight.
  • Dik-dik: small African antelope. Name may be an imitation of their alarm cry. Long and flexible snout. Only male dik-diks have the corrugated horns.
  • Duiker: small- to medium-sized antelope, sub-Saharan Africa. Name from Afrikkans/Dutch word for diver or diving buck. It refers to the duikers' practice of diving into tangles of shrubbery.
  • Bongo: a giant among forest antelopes. Native to rain forests of central and western Africa. Thin stripes.
  • Eland: the largest type of antelope.
  • Gerenuk: giraffe gazelle, is a long-necked antelope found in parts of East Africa.
  • Lechwe: native to the floodplains of the Nile River Valley.

marmot vs prairie dogs vs ground squirrel vs

"marmot tribe"

  • squirrels, Marmotini
  • marmots (Marmota), including the American groundhog
  • the smaller and less bushy-tailed ground squirrels tend to be known as chipmunks


  • aardvark 土豚
  • shrews 鼩鼱
  • sengi: 象鼩
  • armadillos 犰狳
  • Fennec fox 耳廓狐: the smallest fox. very large ears
  • sea otter: the smallest marine mammal (river otter vs sea otter?)
  • caracal 狞猫
  • mongoose 猫鼬
  • ibex 山羊
  • Pudu: the world's smallest deer, South American
  • Agouti: 刺豚鼠, native to Middle America, related to guinea pigs
  • Binturong 熊狸
  • Kopi luwak, also known as civet coffee, is a coffee that consists of partially digested coffee cherries, which have been eaten and defecated by the Asian palm civet (椰子貓)(Paradoxurus hermaphroditus).


  • The only squirrels that hibernate are the ground squirrels
  • Groundhogs hibernate from October through March
  • Bears hibernate.